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2011年诺贝尔医学奖获得者:拉尔夫.斯坦曼

来源:成都高新华南医院肿瘤生物治疗中心 发布日期:2015-12-11 浏览数:1211  分享到:
 

List of awardsEdit■1998 – William B. Coley Award
■1999 – Robert Koch Prize
■2003 – Gairdner Foundation International Award
■2006 – Debrecen Award for Molecular Medicine[21]
■2007 – Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research
■2009 – Albany Medical Center Prize (Shared with Charles A. Dinarello and Bruce Beutler; [1])
■2010 – Heineken Prizes
■2011 – Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (shared with Bruce Beutler and Jules A. Hoffmann)[15]
ResearchEdit
Immunology tries to understand resistance to infection. Infections are first resisted by innate immunity, followed by adaptive immunity which has memory and so can prevent reinfection. Two questions that Immunologiests ask: 1) what mechanism do innate and adaptive resistance come about? 2) how do these mechanisms contribute to other fields of medicine such as cancer, allergy, autoimmunity etc.? In the 20th century, he came up with two theories: 1) macrophages mediate innate resistance through phagocytosis and intracellular killing 2) Ab mediate adaptive resistance by neutralizing microbial toxins. Steinman discovered that dendritic cells link innate to adaptive immunity, including adaptive Tcell-mediated immunity.

He studied the initiation of antibody responses in tissue culture in the laboratory. As shown, he found out that antigens, lymphocytes and "accessory cells" together create immune responses. Accessory cells contain a new cell type with probing cell process or "dendrites". These cells proved to be the missing link between innate and adaptive immunity.

Several features were used to identify and purify dendritic cells from mouse spleen. Because dendritic cells were discovered amongst "adherent" accessory cells (i.e. those that attach to tissue culture surfaces), they had to be distinguished from macrophages, whose hallmarks were persistent phagocytosis and adherence to tissue culture surfaces. However, Steinman found that dendritic cells (blue) had different morphology and expressed different molecules from macrophages. For example, they did not express FcR- receptors but did express major components of the Major Histocompatibility Complex II and did not adhere to surfaces or exploit phagocytosis. Macrophages on the other hand showed the opposite characteristics. The study was carried out in collaboration with Zanvil A. Cohn, who studied resistance to infectious diseases especially the biology of macrophages.

Some general features of T cell responses that are initiated by dendritic cells: - adaptive immunity develops in two stages: DCs present antigens and initiate the afferent limb, while the other APC mediate the effectors to eliminate the antigen or infection - in tissue cultures, immunity develops in clusters of DC and lymphocytes. You can actually observe the onset of adaptive immunity in vitro. Dendritic cells were therefore considered "natures adjuvants" for T cell immnunity, meaning they helped induce T cells. DCs can produce protective substances like cytokines, interferons, chemokines, anti-microbial peptides DCs can mobilize innate lymphocyltes such as natural killer cells (which in turn produce cytokines or kill target cells upon recognition) However, unlike macrophages, DCs do not phagocytose or kill microbes

DCs capture, process and present antigens: - some receptors such as FcR death receptor can activate/inhibit DC function - Antigen processing and presentation of proteins and lipids seems efficient and can include cross presentation on MHC I and CD1 - Uptake and processing are regulated by environmental stimuli - In vivo, dendritic cells process antigens to form peptide-MHC complexes in the steady state, especially in lymphoid organs - Most DCs in vivo in the steady state are immature, able to take up and present antigens, but unable to adaptive T cell immunity - Environmental stimuli, e.g., microbial products, alter or mature DCs and/or act together with DCs to control the formation of different types of helper, cytotoxic and regulatory types of T cells - Maturing dendritic cells also carry out innate responses, particularly the formation of cytokines and chemokines - Maturation links innate to adaptive immunity; it controls the quality of the response that develops in DCs and in lymphocytes that recognize presented antigens - "subset" refers to distinct DC with different receptor for antigen uptake and maturation, and distinct functions in innate and adaptive immunity. they reside in the peripheral organs and induce different forms of antigen-specific peripheral tolerance. Antigens from the periphery are captured by DC in lymphoid tissues, even in steady (not matured) state. In steady state, DC induce tolerance so that DC maturation can lead to immunity to microbial antigen - However, maturing DC capture microbial as well as self, dying cells, thus resulting in autoreactivity and chronic inflammation.

 

 

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